Eighth graders listen as the teacher introduces terms and activities for this lesson. They participate in two lab activities. In the first, they use an index card, a coin, and a cup. Students are to apply force to the card to make the coin drop into the cup without touching the coin. In the second activity, 8th graders use a light-weight ball and a flexible ruler. The goal is to shoot the ball into a wall using various pressures on the ruler. Students discuss their results.