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Author : John Campbell
ISBN : 9780199652747
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.98 MB
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The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics is an in-depth introduction to the particle physics of current and future experiments at particle accelerators. The book offers the reader an overview of practically all aspects of the strong interaction necessary to understand and appreciate modern particle phenomenology at the energy frontier. It assumes a working knowledge of quantum field theory at the level of introductory textbooks used for advanced undergraduate or in standard postgraduate lectures. The book expands this knowledge with an intuitive understanding of relevant physical concepts, an introduction to modern techniques, and their application to the phenomenology of the strong interaction at the highest energies. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, it also serves as a comprehensive reference for LHC experimenters and theorists. This book offers an exhaustive presentation of the technologies developed and used by practitioners in the field of fixed-order perturbation theory and an overview of results relevant for the ongoing research programme at the LHC. It includes an in-depth description of various analytic resummation techniques, which form the basis for our understanding of the QCD radiation pattern and how strong production processes manifest themselves in data, and a concise discussion of numerical resummation through parton showers, which form the basis of event generators for the simulation of LHC physics, and their matching and merging with fixed-order matrix elements. It also gives a detailed presentation of the physics behind the parton distribution functions, which are a necessary ingredient for every calculation relevant for physics at hadron colliders such as the LHC, and an introduction to non-perturbative aspects of the strong interaction, including inclusive observables such as total and elastic cross sections, and non-trivial effects such as multiple parton interactions and hadronization. The book concludes with a useful overview contextualising data from previous experiments such as the Tevatron and the Run I of the LHC which have shaped our understanding of QCD at hadron colliders.

Author : Carlos Bertulani
ISBN : 9781000356373
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.18 MB
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Until the publication of the first edition of Introduction to Nuclear Reactions in 2004, an introductory reference on nuclear reactions had been unavailable. Now, fully updated throughout, this second edition continues to provide an authoritative overview of nuclear reactions. It discusses the main formalisms, ranging from basic laws to the final formulae used in academic research to calculate measurable quantities. Well known in their fields, the authors begin with a basic introduction to elements of scattering theory followed by a study of its applications to specific nuclear reactions. Early chapters give a framework of compound nucleus formation and its decay, fusion, fission, and direct reactions, that can be easily understood by the novice. These chapters also serve as prototypes for applications of the underlying physical ideas presented in previous chapters. The largest section of the book comprises the physical models that have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear reaction phenomena, including reactions in stellar environments, cosmic rays, and during the big bang. The final chapters survey applications of the eikonal wavefunction and of nuclear transport equations to nuclear reactions at high energies. By combining a thorough theoretical approach with applications to recent experimental data, Introduction to Nuclear Reactions helps you understand the results of experimental measurements rather than describe how they are made. A clear treatment of the topics and coherent organization make this information understandable to students and professionals with a solid foundation in physics as well as to those with a more general science and technology background. Features: Analyses in detail different models of the nucleus and discusses their interrelations. Fully updated throughout, with new sections and additional discussions on stellar evolution, big bang nucleosynthesis, neutron stars and relativistic heavy ion collisions. Discusses the latest developments in nuclear reaction theory and experiments and explores both direct reaction theories and heavy ion reactions, which are newly important to nuclear physics in reactions with rare nuclear isotopes.

Author : Andrei Smilga
ISBN : 9783319599229
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.8 MB
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This book gives an intermediate level treatment of quantum field theory, appropriate to a reader with a first degree in physics and a working knowledge of special relativity and quantum mechanics. It aims to give the reader some understanding of what QFT is all about, without delving deep into actual calculations of Feynman diagrams or similar. The author serves up a seven‐course menu, which begins with a brief introductory Aperitif. This is followed by the Hors d'oeuvres, which set the scene with a broad survey of the Universe, its theoretical description, and how the ideas of QFT developed during the last century. In the next course, the Art of Cooking, the author recaps on some basic facts of analytical mechanics, relativity, quantum mechanics and also presents some nutritious “extras” in mathematics (group theory at the elementary level) and in physics (theory of scattering). After these preparations, the reader should have a good appetite for the Entrées ‐ the central par t of the book where the Standard Model is described and explained. After Trou Normand, the restive pause including human stories about physicists and no formulas, the author serves the Dessert, devoted to supersymmetry (a very beautiful theory that is still awaiting a direct experimental confirmation), to general relativity and to the mystery of quantum gravity.

Author : Steven S. Gubser
ISBN : 9781400834433
Genre : Science
File Size : 89.20 MB
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The essential beginner's guide to string theory The Little Book of String Theory offers a short, accessible, and entertaining introduction to one of the most talked-about areas of physics today. String theory has been called the "theory of everything." It seeks to describe all the fundamental forces of nature. It encompasses gravity and quantum mechanics in one unifying theory. But it is unproven and fraught with controversy. After reading this book, you'll be able to draw your own conclusions about string theory. Steve Gubser begins by explaining Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, quantum mechanics, and black holes. He then gives readers a crash course in string theory and the core ideas behind it. In plain English and with a minimum of mathematics, Gubser covers strings, branes, string dualities, extra dimensions, curved spacetime, quantum fluctuations, symmetry, and supersymmetry. He describes efforts to link string theory to experimental physics and uses analogies that nonscientists can understand. How does Chopin's Fantasie-Impromptu relate to quantum mechanics? What would it be like to fall into a black hole? Why is dancing a waltz similar to contemplating a string duality? Find out in the pages of this book. The Little Book of String Theory is the essential, most up-to-date beginner's guide to this elegant, multidimensional field of physics.

Heavy ion collision experiments recreating the quark-gluon plasma that filled the microseconds-old universe have established that it is a nearly perfect liquid that flows with such minimal dissipation that it cannot be seen as made of particles. String theory provides a powerful toolbox for studying matter with such properties. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to gauge/string duality and its applications to the study of the thermal and transport properties of quark-gluon plasma, the dynamics of how it forms, the hydrodynamics of how it flows, and its response to probes including jets and quarkonium mesons. Calculations are discussed in the context of data from RHIC and LHC and results from finite temperature lattice QCD. The book is an ideal reference for students and researchers in string theory, quantum field theory, quantum many-body physics, heavy ion physics and lattice QCD.

Author : Marian Apostol
ISBN : 9781527574922
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.26 MB
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This book explores statistical physics, with an emphasis on the distinct character of the statistical motion and difficult subjects, related, mainly, to condensed matter. It discusses the interaction problem in real gases, as well as dimensionality effects and melting. The book shows how to estimate easily the critical temperature of the Ising ferromagnets, the origin of the drag force, how to get an inverse-wind vortex in turbulence, the entropy of the earthquakes, and how the gas-liquid transition occurs. It also describes the hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma, the phase diagram of the quantum chromodynamics, and the thermodynamics of black holes.

A guide to everything you need and want to know about quantum physics, how our universe works and our existence in it. Quantum physics is the most cutting-edge, important and fascinating area of modern science. We have all heard of Einstein's theory of relativity and Schrodinger's Cat - but do we really understand the mind-bending theories of our universe? In 50 concise chapters, Joanne Baker covers the foundation concepts of quantum physics and moves on to present clear explanations of complex theories and their advanced applications - from string theory to black holes, and quarks to quantum computing. With informative two-colour illustrations alongside key ideas in straightforward, bite-sized chunks, this book will teach you everything you need to know about quantum physics - and challenge the way you understand the world. The ideas explored include: Theory of relativity; Schrödinger's cat; Nuclear forces: fission and fusion; Antimatter; Superconductivity.

Written for readers who would like to explore the world of particles and understand the ultimate theory of the universe with minimal mathematical understanding, this book describes the building blocks of our universe and the associated theories. The book welcomes technical as well as non-technical readers to enjoy and explore the world of particles. The World of Particles provides the recipe to build our universe. It describes the contemporary efforts by the scientists to unveil Physics beyond the Standard Model. It describes the Classical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory (QFT), which are the modern developments in Particle Physics. It builds a strong base of various field theories like Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), Quantum Flavordynamics (QFD) and Quantum Gravity. It introduces the reader with Feynman diagrams, CPT-symmetry, Higgs mechanism, String Theory, Loop Quantum Gravity and helps to build a foundation to understand the unification of forces and the ultimate theory of the universe i.e. the Theory of Everything.

The possibility that we live in a higher-dimensional world with spatial dimensions greater than three started with the early work of Kaluza and Klein. However, in addressing experimental constraints, early model-builders were forced to compactify these extra dimensions to very tiny scales. With the development of brane-world scenarios it became possible to consider novel compactifications which allow the extra dimensions to be large or to provide observable effects of these dimensions at experimentally accessible energy scales. This book provides a comprehensive account of these recent developments, keeping the high-energy physics implications in focus. After an historical survey of the idea of extra dimensions, the book deals in detail with models of large extra dimensions, warped extra dimensions and other models such as universal extra dimensions. The theoretical and phenomenological implications are discussed in a pedagogical manner for both researchers and graduate students.

Author : Donald B Grey
ISBN : 1702917045
Genre :
File Size : 33.77 MB
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★ Are you fascinated by quantum physics and want to unlock its mysteries and complexities, but are somehow intimidated by the formulas and mathematics? ★ Are you wishing you could share the insights and discoveries of brilliant theoretical physicists and scientists? Are you looking for a book that can reveal quantum physics in a simple, uncomplicated and clear way that you can immediately understand? If so, this book is for you. It's in an easy and fun-to-read format of 50 of the most common questions about the ever-expanding quantum world of subatomic particles and the forces that govern them. You will quickly learn about: The origin of the universe, the cosmic microwave background, and the three laws of thermodynamics. Black holes, neutron stars, dark matter, and dark energy. Fermions, including protons, neutrons, and electrons, and how they form atoms. Quarks that affect the electrical charges of atoms, as well as alpha decay, beta decay, and their roles in radiation and particle transformations. Radioactive half-life, nuclear fission in atoms, and the nuclear fusion that powers the stars. Bosons and the four forces that control the universe: strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity. The uncertainty principle and the wave/particle law of complementarity, supersymmetry, superposition, and the exclusion principle. Superstring theory, with its 11 dimensions of ultimately fundamental vibrating strings. The Standard Model and Grand Unified Theory, and Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. Entanglement of distant particles and its role in quantum computing. How electron microscopes and PET scans work. The meaning of quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. If these and many other aspects of quantum physics are what you are hoping to learn without having to deal with complexities, this is the one book that you can count on to bring you up to speed, quickly and easily, on all that is going on in quantum physics.

Despite the power of words to move minds, appreciating the written or spoken word is rarely thought to be the essence of teaching and learning science and much more effort goes into organizing practical work. There is an exaggerated confidence in the value of the direct experience of things as opposed to "mere words", and a corresponding neglect of how words are actually involved in developing anyone's scientific understanding. Clive Sutton does not wish to deny the value of first hand scientific understanding, and shows that they cannot just be taken for granted while we busy ourselves in the organization of practical work. He explores the role of language in the growth of science itself, in the growth of learners' ideas, and in classroom practice; and how these relate, for instance, to some pupils' alienation from science and the isolation of science in the curriculum.

Author : Sergei V. Ketov
ISBN : 3540674616
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.9 MB
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Offers a systematic presentation of the modern quantum field theory of non-linear sigma-models. These models are very popular in theoretical high energy physics, string theory, and statistical physics. The geometric and quantum renormalization properties of the most general non-linear sigma-models are considered in detail within the framework of quantum perturbation theory. The main applications to be considered in the book can be found in string theory, conformal field theory, and general relativity.

Author : Andrew Norton
ISBN : 9781000383911
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.70 MB
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Understanding the Universe: The Physics of the Cosmos from Quasars to Quarks explores how all areas of physics, from the very smallest scales to the very largest, come together to form our current understanding of the Universe. It takes readers on a fascinating journey, from the Big Bang and how the Universe has evolved, to how it appears now, and the possibilities for how it will continue to evolve in the future. It also explores the latest exciting developments in the area and how they impact our understanding of the Universe, such as quantum chromodynamics, black holes, dark energy, and gravitational waves. Equally importantly, it explains how we have come to know all of this about the Universe and details the limitations of our current understanding. This book is accessible to all introductory undergraduate students interested in the physical sciences. It prioritises a non-mathematical approach so it can be understood by all students, with only two algebraic equations in the book and any numerical calculations shown are limited to simple arithmetic. Key Features: Combines current understanding of quantum physics and cosmology, and includes the latest exciting developments from the field. Provides an accessible introduction to the topic, focusing on a non-mathematical presentation. Presents a comprehensive narrative on the subject and a coherent story.

Author : Belal E Baaquie
ISBN : 9789814618694
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.23 MB
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"Why"? Why is the world, the Universe the way it is? Is space infinitely large? How small is small? What happens when one continues to divide matter into ever smaller pieces? Indeed, what is matter? Is there anything else besides what can be seen? Pursuing the questions employing the leading notions of physics, one soon finds that the tangible and visible world dissolves — rather unexpectedly — into invisible things and domains that are beyond direct perception. A remarkable feature of our Universe is that most of its constituents turn out to be invisible, and this fact is brought out with great force by this book. Exploring the Invisible Universe covers the gamut of topics in advanced modern physics and provides extensive and well substantiated answers to these questions and many more. Discussed in a non-technical, yet also non-trivial manner, are topics dominated by invisible things — such as Black Holes and Superstrings as well as Fields, Gravitation, the Standard Model, Cosmology, Relativity, the Origin of Elements, Stars and Planetary Evolution, and more. Just giving the answer, as so many books do, is really not telling anything at all. To truly answer the "why" questions of nature, one needs to follow the chain of reasoning that scientists have used to come to the conclusions they have. This book does not shy away from difficult-to-explain topics by reducing them to one-line answers and power phrases suitable for a popular talk show. The explanations are rigorous and straight to the point. This book is rarely mathematical without being afraid, however, to use elementary mathematics when called for. In order to achieve this, a large number of detailed figures, specially developed for this book and found nowhere else, convey insights that otherwise might either be inaccessible or need lengthy and difficult-to-follow explanations. After Exploring the Invisible Universe, a reader will have a deeper insight into our current understanding of the foundations of Nature and be able to answer all the questions above and then some. To understand Nature and the cutting edge ideas of contemporary physics, this is the book to have. Contents:SynopsisFieldsThe Geometry of SpaceGravityBlack HolesCosmologyDark UniverseGalaxies, Stars and PlanetsThe Life of StarsThe Origin of the ElementsElementary ParticlesFundamental InteractionsThe Standard ModelSuperstring UnificationSuperstring GravityEpilogue Readership: Students and general public with knowledge of high school level physics and mathematics, who are interested in theoretical physics including cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. Key Features:Breadth, depth, rigor (without being mathematical)Keywords:Geometry;Gravity;Elementary Particles;Fundamental Forces;Star and Planetary Formation;Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Author : Elias Kiritsis
ISBN : 9780691155791
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.77 MB
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The essential introduction to modern string theory—now fully expanded and revised String Theory in a Nutshell is the definitive introduction to modern string theory. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities on the subject, this concise and accessible book starts with basic definitions and guides readers from classic topics to the most exciting frontiers of research today. It covers perturbative string theory, the unity of string interactions, black holes and their microscopic entropy, the AdS/CFT correspondence and its applications, matrix model tools for string theory, and more. It also includes 600 exercises and serves as a self-contained guide to the literature. This fully updated edition features an entirely new chapter on flux compactifications in string theory, and the chapter on AdS/CFT has been substantially expanded by adding many applications to diverse topics. In addition, the discussion of conformal field theory has been extensively revised to make it more student-friendly. The essential one-volume reference for students and researchers in theoretical high-energy physics Now fully expanded and revised Provides expanded coverage of AdS/CFT and its applications, namely the holographic renormalization group, holographic theories for Yang-Mills and QCD, nonequilibrium thermal physics, finite density physics, and entanglement entropy Ideal for mathematicians and physicists specializing in theoretical cosmology, QCD, and novel approaches to condensed matter systems An online illustration package is available to professors

Author : John G. Cramer
ISBN : 9783319246420
Genre : Science
File Size : 41.63 MB
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This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

Author : Andrey G. Grozin
ISBN : 3540206922
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.67 MB
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This up-to-date review also serves as an introduction to Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) - a new approach to heavy quark physics problems in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The book also contains a detailed discussion of the methods of calculation used in HQET, along with numerous illustrations.

Author : Vladimir N. Gribov
ISBN : 9789812773784
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 40.54 MB
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Vladimir Naumovich Gribov was one of the most outstanding theorists, a key figure in the creation of the modern elementary particle physics. His many discoveries are famous and well accepted by the physics community (Gribov-Regge theory of high energy hadron interactions, Gribov vacuum pole OCo Pomeron, Reggeon field theory, parton evolution equations, neutrino oscillations, Gribov copies in non-Abelian gauge field theories, etc.); Some of his ideas look unacceptable and strange at the first glance. Even at the second glance. Nowadays, under the weight of new theoretical developments and experimental results, his ideas are receiving the recognition they deserve. The Gribov Memorial Workshop, organized on his 75th birthday in Budapest, Hungary in 2005, clearly demonstrated the wealth and fertilization force of his ideas. Close colleagues, younger followers, world experts of the quark-hadron world have gathered together to display new angles of the Gribov heritage. And to remember the personality of a great man. This book collects the talks presented at, and contributed to, the Gribov-75 Memorial Workshop. Contents: QCD and Hadrons at High Energies: Hidden QCD Scales and Diquark Correlations (A Vainshtein); Non-Perturbative YangOCoMills from Supersymmetry and Strings, or, in the Jungles of Strong Coupling (M Shifman); Multiple Interactions and Saturation in High Energy Collisions (G Gustafson); From Quantum Black Holes to Relativistic Heavy Ions (D Kharzeev); Progress in Lattice Studies, Hadron Spectrum and Color Confinement: Exact Chiral Symmetry in Lattice QCD (F Niedermayer); The Effective Bosonic String Action in Quantum Chromodynamics (J Kuti); General Field Theory, Gravity and Macro-World: Supermagnets and Sigma Models (A M Polyakov); PhotonOCoNeutrino Interaction or Optical Activity of Intergalactic Space (V Novikov); Quantized Black Holes, Their Spectrum and Radiation (I B Khriplovich); Many Faces of Dimensional Reduction (A T Filippov); and other papers. Readership: Physicists, researchers, and graduate students in particle and high energy physics."